List of Publications for Sabine Bergler

Guido Powell, Kate Zinszer, Jahnavi Dhananjay, Chi Bahk, Lawrence Madoff, John Brownstein, Sabine Bergler and David Buckeridge 2016. Monitoring Discussion of Vaccine Adverse Events in the Media: Automating Vaccine Sentimeter Classifications. The 3rd AAAI International Workshop on the World Wide Web and Population Health Intelligence (W3PHI 2016) in conjunction with the 30th AAAI Conference on Artificial intelligence (AAAI-16), Phoenix, Arizona

Sabine Bergler 2015. Tweeting Beyond Facts --- The Need for a Linguistic Perspective. Invited presentation at Sofia University. In: Data Science Society Blog http://www.datasciencesociety.net/blog/item/128-tweets-beyond-facts-the-secrets-of-extracting-information-from-tweets.

Canberk Ozdemir and Sabine Bergler 2015. A Comparative Study of Different Sentiment Lexica for Sentiment Analysis of Tweets. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2015), Hissar, Bulgaria.

Canberk Ozdemir and Sabine Bergler 2015. CLaC-SentiPipe: SemEval2015 Subtasks 10 B,E, and Task 11. In: Proceedings of SemEval 2015 at NAACL/HLT, Denver, CO.

Sabine Bergler and Jahnavi Dhananjaya 2015. Graphical View of Blog Content Using B2G. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on the WorldWideWeb and Public Health Intelligence (W3PHI 2015) at AAAI-15, Austin Texas

Alexandra Panagiotopoulos and Sabine Bergler 2014. How Predictive is Tense for Language Proficiency? A Cautionary Tale. In: Gelbukh, Alexander; Espinoza, Felix Castro; Galicia-Haro, Sofi­a N. (Eds.) Nature-Inspired Computation and Machine Learning. 13th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI2014, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico, November 16-22, 2014. Proceedings. LNAI Vol. 8856, Springer.

Sabine Bergler 2013. Metonymy and Metaphor: Boundary Cases and the Role of a Generative Lexicon. In: Advances in Generative Lexicon Theory, Editors: James Pustejovsky, Pierrette Bouillon, Hitoshi Isahara, Kyoko Kanzaki, Chungmin Lee. Springer, Text, Speech and Language Technology Series, Volume 46, pp 127-145. 

Ehsan Shareghi and Sabine Bergler 2013. CLaC-CORE: Exhaustive Feature Combination for Measuring Textual Similarity. Proceedings of *SEM 2013 Shared Task STS. 

Ehsan Shareghi and Sabine Bergler 2013. Feature Combination for Sentence Similarity. O. Zaïane and S. Zilles (Eds.) Canadian AI 2013, LNAI 7884, pp. 150-161. Springer-Verlag Berlin. 

Ralf Krestel, Sabine Bergler and Rene Witte 2012. Modeling Human Newspaper Readers: The Fuzzy Believer Approach. Natural Language Engineering 20(2), pp 261-288, Cambridge University Press. 

Sabine Rosenberg, Halil Kilicoglu, and Sabine Bergler 2012. CLaC Labs: Processing Modality and Negation. Working Notes for QA4MRE Pilot Task at CLEF 2012 

Sabine Rosenberg and Sabine Bergler 2012. UConcordia: CLaC Negation Focus Detection at *Sem 2012. In: Proceedings of *SEM 2012: The First Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics, Montreal. 

Halil Kilicoglu and Sabine Bergler 2012. Biological Event Composition. BMC Bioinformatics Volume 13 Supplement 11. Edited by Jin-Dong Kim, Sampo Pyysalo, Claire Nedellec, Sophia Ananiadou and Jun'ichi Tsujii. 

Yoshinobu Kano, Jari Björne, Filip Ginter, Ekaterina Buyko, Udo Hahn, Kevin Bretonnel Cohen, Karin Verspoor, Christophe Roeder, Lawrence E Hunter, Halil Kilicoglu, Sabine Bergler, Sofie Van Landeghem, Thomas Van Parys, Yves Van de Peer, Makoto Miwa, Sophia Ananiadou, Mariana Neves, Alberto Pascual-Montano, Arzucan Özgür, Dragomir R Radev, Sebastian Riedel, Rune Sætre, Hong-Woo Chun, Jin-Dong Kim, Sampo Pyysalo, Tomoko Ohta and Jun'ichi Tsujii 2011. U-Compare Bio-Event Meta-Service: Compatible BioNLP Event Extraction Services. BMC Bioinformatics 2011, 12:481 

Halil Kilicoglu and Sabine Bergler 2011. Effective Bio-Event Extraction using Trigger Words and Syntactic Dependencies. In: Computational Intelligence 27(4). 

Halil Kilicoglu and Sabine Bergler 2011. Adapting a General Semantic Interpretation Approach to Biological Event Extraction. In: BioNLP-ST-2011 Workshop, Portland, Oregon, June 2011. 

Julien Dubuc and Sabine Bergler 2010. Modeling the Structure of Social Text for Topic Detection. In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM Symposium on Document Engineering (DocEng2010), Manchester, UK. 

Ralf Krestel, Rene Witte, and Sabine Bergler 2010. Predicate-Argument EXtractor (PAX). New Challenges for NLP Frameworks, Workshop at LREC 2010, Valletta, Malta. 

Kilicoglu, Halil and Bergler, Sabine 2010. A High-Precision Approach to Detecting Hedges and Their Scopes. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL-2010), Uppsala, Sweden, July 15-16, 2010. 

Kilicoglu, Halil and Bergler, Sabine 2009. Syntactic Dependency Based Heuristics for Biological Event Extraction, In: Proceedings of the BioNLP 2009 Workshop Companion Volume for Shared Task, NAACL, Boulder, Colorado, pp 119--127. 

Osama El Demerdash, Leila Kosseim and Sabine Bergler 2009. Semantic Inter-media Image Retrieval in Photographic Collections. In Proceeding of IEEE Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP) 2009, Rio de Janeiro. 

Elena Frantova and Sabine Bergler 2009. Automatic Emotion Annotation of Dream Diaries. In: Analyzing Social Media to Represent Collective Knowledge Workshop at K-CAP 2009, The Fifth International Conference on Knowledge Capture. 

Ralf Krestel, Rene Witte, Sabine Bergler 2009. Believe It or Not: Solving the TAC 2009 Textual Entailment Tasks through an Artificial Believer System In: Proceedings of Text Analysis Conference (TAC 2009), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, November 16-17, 2009. 

El Demerdash O., S. Bergler and L. Kosseim 2009. CLaC at ImageCLEF 2009 CLEF working notes 2009, Corfu, Greece. 

Halil Kilicoglu and Sabine Bergler 2008. Recognizing Speculative Language in Biomedical Research Articles: A Linguistically Motivated Perspective. In:BMC Bioinformatics Volume 9 Supplement 11, 2008: Proceedings of the BioNLP 08 ACL Workshop: Themes in biomedical language processing. 

Sabine Bergler (ed.) 2008. Advances in Artificial Intelligence, 21st Conference of the Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence, Canadian AI 2008, Windsor, Canada, May 28-30, 2008, Proceedings, LNCS 5032, Springer Berlin. 

Osama El Demerdash, Leila Kosseim, and Sabine Bergler 2008. Text-Based Clustering of the ImageCLEFphoto Collection for Augmenting the Retrieved Results. In: Advances in Multilingual and Multimodal Information Retrieval - 8th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2007, Budapest, Hungary, September 19-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, LNCS 5152, Springer Verlag, Berlin. 

Halil Kilicoglu and Sabine Bergler 2008. Recognizing Speculative Language in Biomedical Research Articles: A Linguistically Motivated Perspective. In: Proceedings of BioNLP 2008, a workshop of ACL 2008, Columbus, OH, June 2008. 

Jona Schuman and Sabine Bergler 2008. The Role of Nominalizations in Prepositional Phrase Attachment in GENIA. In: Proceedings of the 21st Canadian Artificial Intelligence Conference (AI 2008), Windsor, Ontario, May 2008, LNAI, Springer Verlag, Berlin. 

Alina Andreevskaia and Sabine Bergler 2008. When Specialists and Generalists Work Together: Overcoming Domain Dependence in Sentiment Tagging. In Proceedings of The 46th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (ACL08:HLT), Columbus, Ohio, June 2008. 

Ralf Krestel , Rene Witte , Sabine Bergler 2008. Minding the Source: Automatic Tagging of Reported Speech in Newspaper Articles In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2008), Marrakech, Morocco. 

Jona Schuman and Sabine Bergler 2008. Interactive Retrieval Using Weights. In:On-line Proceedings of The Sixteenth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2007), NIST Special Publication: SP 500-274, http://trec.nist.gov/pubs/trec16/t16_proceedings.html. 

Ralf Krestel, Rene Witte, Sabine Bergler, 2008. A Belief Revision Approach to Textual Entailment Recognition. In: Proceedings of Text Analysis Conference (TAC 2008), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, November 17-19, 2008. 

O. El Demerdash, L. Kosseim and S. Bergler 2007. Experiments with Clustering the Collection at ImageCLEF 2007. In Proceedings of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF-2007), 4 pages, Budapest, Hungary, September 2007. 

R. Krestel, R. Witte, and S. Bergler 2007. Processing of Beliefs Extracted from Reported Speech in Newspaper Articles. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2007), September 27 - 29, 2007, Borovets, Bulgaria. 

R. Witte and S. Bergler 2007. Next-Generation Summarization: Contrastive, Focused, and Update Summaries. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2007), September 27 - 29, 2007, Borovets, Bulgaria. 

Greg Butler, Volker Haarslev, Chris Baker, Sabine Bergler, Leila Kosseim, Doina Precup, Justin Powlowski, Nematollah Shiri, and Adrian Tsang 2007. FungalWeb: A semantic web for exploring knowledge-based bioinformatics. In: Presentation to the the NETTAB (Network Tools and Applications in Biology) 2007 Workshop on A Semantic Web for Bioinformatics: Goals, Tools, Systems, Applications, Pisa, Italy, June 12-15, 2007. 

R. Witte, R. Krestel, and S. Bergler 2007. Generating Update Summaries for DUC 2007. In On-line Proceedings of the Document Understanding Conference (DUC) Workshop at NAACL-HLT 2007, April 26 - 27, 2007, Rochester, NY, USA. 

Alina Andreevskaia and Sabine Bergler 2007. CLaC and CLaC-NB: Knowledge-based and corpus-based approaches to sentiment tagging. In:Proceedings of SemEval-2007: 4th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluations at ACL 2007, Prague. 

Rene Witte and Sabine Bergler 2007. Fuzzy Clustering for Topic Analysis and Summarization of Document Collections. In:Ziad Kobti and Dan Wu (eds) Advances in Artificial Intelligence - 20th Conference of the Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence, Canadian AI 2007, Montreal, Canada, May 2007, Proceedings, LNAI 4509, Springer Verlag, Berlin. Best Paper Award. 

Ralf Krestel, Rene Witte, and Sabine Bergler 2007. Creating a Fuzzy Believer to Model Human Newspaper Readers. In:Proceedings of the 20th Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AI 2007), Montreal, Quebec, May 28-30 2007. 

Ralf Krestel , Rene Witte , Sabine Bergler 2007. Fuzzy Set Theory-Based Belief Processing for Natural Language Texts. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, July 22-26, 2007, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 1878-1879, 2007, AAAI Press, 978-1-57735-323-2. 

Abolfazl Keighobadi Lamjiri, Julien Dubuc, Leila Kosseim, and Sabine Bergler 2007. Indexing Low Frequency Information for Answering Complex Questions. Poster in:Proceedings of RIAO 2007 - 8th RIAO Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, May 30 to June 1, 2007. 

Alina Andreevskaia, Sabine Bergler, and Monica Urseanu 2007. All Blogs are Not Made Equal: Exploring Genre Differences in Sentiment Tagging of Blogs. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM-2007) Boulder, CO, March 26-28, 2007. 

S. Bergler, J. Schuman, J. Dubuc, and A. Lebedev 2007. BioKI, A General Literature Navigation System at TREC Genomics 2006. In:Proceedings of The Fifteenth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2006), NIST (http://trec.nist.gov/pubs.html). 

Leila Kosseim, Reda Siblini, Christopher Baker and Sabine Bergler 2006. Using Selectional Restrictions to Query an OWL Ontology. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS 2006), November 9-11, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Alina Andreevskaia and Sabine Bergler 2006. Semantic Tagging at the Sense Level. Poster and Member Abstract in Proceedings of the Twenty-first National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2006), July 16-20, 2006, Boston, MA. 

R. Witte, R. Krestel, and S. Bergler 2006. Context-Based Multi-Document Summarization Using Fuzzy Coreference Cluster Graphs. In:Proceedings of DUC 2006, Document Understanding Workshop at HLT-NAACL, June 8-9, 2006, Brooklyn, New York USA. 

Jonathan Schuman and Sabine Bergler 2006. Postnominal Prepositional Phrase Attachment in Proteomics. In: Proceedings of BioNLP'06, a workshop associated with HLT-NAACL 2006, Brooklyn, NY, June 8. 

Sabine Bergler, Jonathan Schuman, Julien Dubuc, Alexandr Lebedev 2006. BioKI:Enzymes - an adaptable system to locate low-frequency information in full-text proteomics articles. Poster abstract in: Proceedings of BioNLP'06, a workshop associated with HLT-NAACL 2006, Brooklyn, NY, June 8. 

Sabine Bergler, Jonathan Schuman, Julien Dubuc, Alexandr Lebedev 2006. BioKI - a literature navigation system for browsing full-text journal articles from PubMed Central. Poster at the 2nd Conference of the Quebec Global Health Research Network. Montreal, May 4, 2006. 

Alina Andreevskaia, Zhuoyan Li and Sabine Bergler 2006. Partial Predicate Argument Structure Matching for Entailment Determination. In: Joaquin Quinonero-Candela, Ido Dagan, Bernardo Magnini, Florence d'Alche-Buc (eds) Machine Learning Challenges. Evaluating Predictive Uncertainty, Visual Object Classification, and Recognising Textual Entailment: First PASCAL Machine Learning Challenges Workshop, MLCW 2005, Southhampton, UK, April 11-13, 2005. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 3944, pp 332-343. 

Alina Andreevskaia and Sabine Bergler 2006. Senses and Sentiments: Sentiment Tagging of Adjectives at the Meaning Level. Proceedings of the 19th Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AI'06, June 7-9 2006, Quebec, Canada. Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4013. pp.336-346. Best student paper award. 

Alina Andreevskaia and Sabine Bergler 2006. Sentiment Tag Extraction from WordNet Glosses. Proceedings of the fifth international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2006, Genoa, Italy, May 24-26, 2006. 

Alina Andreevskaia and Sabine Bergler 2006. Mining WordNet for Fuzzy Sentiment: Sentiment Tag Extraction from WordNet Glosses. In: Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL 2006, Trento, Italy. 

Rene Witte, Ralph Krestel, Sabine Bergler 2005. ERSS 2005: Coreference-Based Summarization Reloaded, in:Workshop on Text Summarization, Document Understanding Conference (DUC 2005), October 9-10, 2005, Vancouver. NIST. 

Sabine Bergler 2006. Conveying Attitude with Reported Speech, in: James C. Shanahan, Yan Qu, and Janyce Wiebe (eds) Computing Attitude and Affect in Text: Theory and Applications, Springer Verlag. 

Suen, C.Y., S. Bergler, N. Nobile, W. Pan, and B. Waked, 2005. Automatic Identification of Oriental and Other Scripts in Image Documents. International Journal of Computer Processing of Oriental Languages, 18(2), pages 1-18. 

Alina Andreevskaia, Zhuoyan Li and Sabine Bergler 2005. Shallow Semantics for Textual Entailment Determination, in Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop forComputational Linguistics in the North-East, CLiNE05, Universite du Quebec en Outaouais, Gatineau, August 26th, 2005. 

Osama El Demerdash, Sabine Bergler, Leila Kosseim and PK Langshaw 2005. Developing AMIE: an Adaptive Multimedia Integrated Environment, in: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval (AMK 2005), July 28-29, Glasgow, UK. 

Osama El Demerdash, Sabine Bergler, Leila Kosseim and PK Langshaw 2005. Generating Adaptive Multimedia Presentations Based on a Semiotic Framework, in: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence, Canadian AI 2005, Victoria, Canada, May 9-11, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3501/2005, Springer Verlag. 

Andreevskaia, A., Z. Li, and S. Bergler 2005. Can Shallow Predicate Argument Structures Determine Entailment?, in The first PASCAL Recognising Textual Entailment Challenge (RTE I), 12. April, Southampton, UK. 

Bergler, S., R. Witte, Z. Li, M. Khalife, Y. Chen, M. Doandes, A. Andreevskaia 2004. Multi-ERSS and ERSS 2004, in:Workshop on Text Summarization, Document Understanding Conference (DUC 2004), May 6-7, 2004, Boston. NIST. 

Sabine Bergler, Monia Doandes, Christine Gerard, and Rene Witte 2004. Attributions, in: Exploring Attitude and Affect in Text: Theories and Applications AAAI-EAAT 2004, AAAI Press, Co-chairs, Yan Qu, James G. Shanahan, Janyce Wiebe, SS-04-07. 

Rene Witte and Sabine Bergler 2003. Fuzzy Coreference Resolution for Summarization, in: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Reference Resolution and Its Applications to Question Answering and Summarization (ARQAS 2003), June 23-24, 2003, Universita Ca'Foscari, Venice, Italy. pp. 43-50. 

Bergler, Sabine, Rene Witte, Michelle Khalife, Zhuoyan Li, and Frank Rudzicz, 2003. Using Knowledge-poor Coreference Resolution for Text Summarization. in:Workshop on Text Summarization, Document Understanding Conference (DUC 2003), May 31-June 1, 2003, Edmonton, Canada. NIST. 

Bergler, Sabine and Christine Gerard 2002. The Role of Reported Speech in Newspaper Articles. Presented at CSDL 2002, the 6th Conference on Conceptual Structure, Discourse and Language, Rice University, Houston Texas, October 2002. 

Boulos Waked, Ching Suen, Sabine Bergler 2001. Segmenting Document Images using Diagonal White Runs and Vertical Edges , In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition , Seattle, Washington, September 2001. 

Sabine Bergler 2001. Metonymy and Metaphor --- Boundary Cases and the Role of a Generative Lexicon, in: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Generative Approaches to the Lexicon , Geneva, Switzerland, April 2001. 

Damova, Mariana and Sabine Bergler 2000. The Aspectual Type BEGIN, in: Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Automatic Natural Language Processing (TALN 2000) , Lausanne, Switzerland.

S. Bergler, C. Y. Suen, C. Nadal, N. Nobile, B. Waked, and A. Bloch 1999. Logical Block Labeling of Diverse Types of Document Images, in: Document Layout Interpretation and its Applications (DLIA99) , Bangalore, India pp. 4470-4475, September 1999. 

Damova, Mariana and Sabine Bergler 1998. Inference Between Aspectual Verbs and Events, in: Proceedings of ESSLI'98 Workshop on Lexical Semantics in Context , Saarbruecken, Germany.

Suen, Bergler, Nobile, Waked, Nadal, Bloch 1998. Categorizing Document Images into Script and Language Classes, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition , Plymouth, UK.

Waked, Bergler, Khoury, Suen 1998. Skew Detection, Page Segmentation, and Script Classification of Document Images, in: Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics , San Diego, CA.

Nicola Nobile, Sabine Bergler, Ching Y. Suen, Sami Khoury 1997. Language Identification of On-Line Documents Using Word Shapes, in: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition , Ulm, Germany.

Sabine Bergler 1997. Towards Reliable Partial Anaphora Resolution, in: Operational Factors in Practical, Robust Anaphora Resolution for Unrestricted Texts  Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Association for Computational Linguistics, Madrid, Spain.

Sabine Bergler and Sonja Knoll 1996. Coreference Patterns in the Wall Street Journal , in Carol Percy, Charles Meyer, and Ian Lancashire (eds), Synchronic corpus linguistics. Papers from the Sixteenth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora, Toronto 1995 , Amsterdam:Rodopi, Language and Computers series (J. Aarts and W. Meijs (eds)).

Sabine Bergler 1995. Generative Lexicon Principles for Machine Translation: A Case for Meta-lexical Structure, Journal of Machine Translation 9(3).

Sabine Bergler 1995. From Lexical Semantics to Text Analysis, in P. Saint-Dizier and E. Viegas (eds), Computational Lexical Semantics , Cambridge,UK:Cambridge University Press.

V.S. Alagar, S. Bergler, and F.Q. Dong (eds) 1994. Incompleteness and Uncertainty in Information Systems Berlin:Springer Verlag.

James Pustejovsky, Sabine Bergler, and Peter Anick 1993. Lexical Semantic Techniques for Corpus Analysis. Computational Linguistics 19(2)  Reprinted in: Susan Armstrong (ed) Using Large Corpora  Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 1994.

Sabine Bergler 1993. Semantic Dimensions in the Field of Reporting Verbs, in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the University of Waterloo Centre for the New Oxford English Dictionary and Text Research , Oxford, England, September 1993. 

Sabine Bergler 1992. The Evidential Analysis of Reported Speech. PhD Dissertation, Brandeis University, Massachusetts. Available from UMI. 

James Pustejovsky and Sabine Bergler (eds) 1992. Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation Berlin:Springer Verlag. 

Peter Anick and Sabine Bergler 1992. Lexical Structures for Linguistic Inference, in J. Pustejovsky and S. Bergler (eds), Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation  Berlin:Springer Verlag.

Sabine Bergler 1991. The Semantics of Collocational Patterns for Reporting Verbs , in Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics April 1991, Berlin, Germany. 

Sabine Bergler and James Pustejovsky 1990. Temporal Reasoning from Lexical Semantics, in B. Endress-Niggemeyer, T. Herrmann, A. Kobsa, and D. Roesner (eds), Interaktion und Kommunikation mit dem Computer  Berlin:Springer Verlag. 

James Pustejovsky and Sabine Bergler 1987. The Acquisition of Conceptual Structure for the Lexicon, in Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence July 1987, Seattle, Washington. 



For copies and more information contact: bergler@cs.concordia.ca

Last updated in 1998