Conceptual Reference Database for Building Envelope Research Prev
Related Concept
  • envelope materials
  • OSB - Oriented strandboard
  • SIP: structural insulated panels
  • wood frame houses and walls, wood structure
  • wood panel
  • wood: engineered products

  • Related Articles
  • AF&PA - American Forest and Paper Association
  • ASTM Committee D07 on Wood
  • Beetles destroys wood
  • Building Materials and Wood Technology
  • Conference: Durability and Disaster Mitigation in Wood Frame Housing
  • Conference: Seminar on Bio-deterioration of Coated Wood ¨C Coating and Substrate
  • Dictionary of Wood Product and Construction Terminology: CWC
  • Dimensional lumber
  • ECE Timber Committee Technical Excursion to the Federal Republic of Germany
  • Emissions from wood based materials and indoor air
  • Jack pine
  • Journal: Canadian Journal of Forest Research
  • Journal: Forest Products Journal
  • Journal: Wood and Fiber Science
  • Journal: Wood Science
  • Journal: Wood Science and Technology
  • Moisture Capacity of wood
  • moisture content measurement with built in probes
  • Moisture induced internal stresses in structural wood elements
  • More than 5% of all construction lumber in US is for replacing wood that has decayed
  • wood vs steel: NASFA Market reports
  • Pressure Treated Lumber
  • references related wood
  • timber structure inspection and assessment for conservation.
  • Top Ten Rules of Wood Durability
  • wood decay and water is directly related
  • Wood density
  • Wood durability
  • Wood fungi
  • Wood, wood product, and wood frame house

  • Concept:

    wood, lumber, timber

    Definitions Wood: the hard, fibrous substance that forms the major part of the trunk and branches of a tree. Hardwood and softwood Hardwood trees have broad-leaves and 'nuts' as seeds, softwood trees are coniferous (needle leaves) and naked seeds. Lumber: wood that has been cut and surfaced for construction use. Timber: lumber whose smallest dimension is not less than 5 in. Laminated lumber is commonly used when increased wood lard-carrying capacity and rigidity are required.

    Plywood is a panel product made from thin sheets of wood called veneers. Expand 0.2% from dry to saturation.

    Also see: OSB - Oriented strandboard, MDF, LVL

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006Specification on lumber and engineered wood products

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006Softwood Lumber Grades

    "Canadian forest ¡­ resource accounts for 15% of the world's softwood timber from which Canada produces 11% of the world's lumber. The bulk of Canadian softwood lumber is exported to the United States, where it represents 1/3 of U.S. consumption."¡­

    "Qu¨¦bec is impressive in terms not only of its land area but also of the quantity and diversity of its resources. Forests figure prominently among the province¡¯s resources, constituting a source of social wealth. Upwards of 90% of Qu¨¦bec¡¯s forests are publicly-owned, while private woodlots, located primarily in the south, account for 10% of the province¡¯s forested lands." --

    Dimensional lumber/studs: Employee productivity was near 2,125 m3 (900,000 bf) per worker per year for dimension and stud mills -- Spelter and Alderman, 2005, Profile 2005 : softwood sawmills in the United States and Canada

    "With some 300 mills each processing more than 10 000 m3 of wood annually, the lumber industry is at the heart of the economic and social development of the regions of Qu¨¦bec. Indeed, this sector is the economic cornerstone of close to 250 of Qu¨¦bec¡¯s municipalities, generating approximately about 40 500 direct jobs.

    Qu¨¦bec ranks second, after British Columbia, among the Canadian provinces for softwood lumber production. As further proof of its powerhouse status throughout North America, it alone accounts for approximately 24% of Canada¡¯s production.

    As for hardwood lumber production, Qu¨¦bec takes first place among all Canadian provinces; weighing in at 78% of the country¡¯s output, the province again enjoys pre-eminence on the North American scene.

    In 2000-2001, shipments of lumber manufactured in Qu¨¦bec¡¯s primary processing mills, for all species, totalled 42 000 000 m3. The main supply sources were softwood species harvested on public forest lands, such as fir, spruce, grey pine, and larch. --

    tidbits: Embodied energy: "The complex molecules in a wooden beam contain 15 gigajoules of energy perf ton¡­" Lippiatt, B.C., 2002, BEES 2.0, building for environmental and economic sustainability-Technical manual and user guide, E1557-02 standard classification for building elements and related sitework-UNIFORMAT II

    Timber engineering software: This link was broken when checked on Dec. 2006

    For joint designs see Erman, 2003, Timber joint design: the geometric breakdown method

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006All about trees provides some snapshot info on US forestry by AF&PA - American Forest and Paper Association Journals:

    Wood Based Panels International

    Wood Science And Technology

    Journal Of The International Academy Of Wood Science

    Wood Technology

    Woodcut An Annual

    Good References:

    Fridley, K. J., 2002, Wood and wood-based materials: current status and future gives a good summary of existing technical resources

    Tsoumis, G., Science and technology of wood -- structure, properties, utilization, Van Nostrand Reinhold,

    NY, 1992.

    This link has not been checked.Wood properties, by JERROLD E. WINANDY, at FPL

    Also see

    references related wood by Dr. Reddy Mallidi

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006Glossary of wood

    This link was broken when checked on Dec. 2006Mold growth on "green" lumber and other wood products Understand the requirements for the growth of fungi, and the differences that exist between mold and decay fungi. Be able to discuss the molds commonly found on green lumber, and how these differ from other molds commonly found on wood and wood-based products.

    This link was broken when checked on Dec. 2006Physical properties of wood

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006WoodWeb

    This link was broken when checked on Dec. 2006FP339-Introduction to Wood Science course note (concise, good, 12 chapter+)

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006An Introduction to the Behavior and Design of Timber Structures at Washington State University, "to aid in the understanding of wood as an engineering material and with the structural design processes used in timber design."

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006US pulp capacity estimation 2000 by FPL


    This link was checked on Dec. 2006Cell wall micropores "Wood is a complex porous material. The pores within wood exist at the macroscopic level (cell lumena, pits etc.), but there are also micropores, which exist within the cell wall having diameters of the order of 3 nm and lower. An understanding of the geometry of these microvoids is important in trying to understand processes such as the drying of timber, biodegradation, efficient penetration by preservatives, and pulp bleaching.". ?a mercury porosimeter and nitrogen sorption analytical equipment, Dynamic Vapour Sorption analyser, helium pycnometer and solute exclusion equipment.

    Web Links (28): Notes
    Related References (65)
    mold growth
    A mathematical model of mold growth on wooden material, by Hukka, A. and Viitanen H., 1999
    painted wood panel
    A qualitative model for moisture balance in painted vertical wood paneling, by Hjort, S. G., 1998
    A summary of the project for surface and system treatment, by Evans, F. G. and Jacobsen, B., 2002
    Advancing cellulose-based nanotechnology, by Wegner, T. H. and Jones, P. E., 2006
    An optimization technique to determine red oak surface and internal moisture transfer coefficients during drying, by Simpson, W. T., Liu, J. Y., 1997
    Application of modified international wood preservative chemical testing standards for assessment of biocontrol treatments, by Tuckera, E. J. B., Brucea, A. and Stainesb, H. J., 1997
    Benefits from wood engineering research, by LeVan, S. L., 1998
    USAD wood handbook
    Biodeterioration of wood, by Highley, T. L., 1999
    Climate Change Mitigation by Forestry: a review of international initiatives, by Stuart, M. D. and Moura-costa, P., 1998
    Colonization of painted wood by blue stain fungi, by Bardage, S. L., 2002
    Course of moisture content and moisture risk index of coated and uncoated wood, by Rapp, A.O., 2002
    ASTM on moisture conditioning
    D4933-99 Standard guide for moisture conditioning of wood and wood-base materials, by ASTM, 2000
    Decay of wood
    Decay of wood and wood-based products above ground in buildings, Mechanism of Brown-Rot Decay: Paradigm or Paradox, by Carll, C. G. and Highley, T. L., 1999
    dry rot, Serpula lacrymans
    Development of model systems for investigations of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans (Schumach. ex Fr.) Gray: Use for analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the organism, by Low, G. A., Palfreyman, J. W., White, N. A. and Sinclair, D. C. R., 1999
    Drying hardwood lumber, by Denig, J., Wengert, E. M. and Simpson, W.T., 2000
    noise reduction by wood
    Durability of wood, by ?deen, K. and J. Nor¨¦n, 1999
    Effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood, by Osanyintola, O. F., Talukdara, P. and Simonson, C. J., 2006
    engineered wood product
    Engineered wood products: a response to the changing timber resource, by McKeever, D. B., 1997
    Environmental labelling of timber-framed dwellings and their building components, by Stehn, L., 2002
    Evaluation of natural decay resistance of wood recovered from demolished buildings, by Wang, Q. and Odeen, K., 1996
    Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis, by Crawford, D.M. and Clausen, C.A, 1999
    Exterior wood in the South: selection, applications, and finishes, by Cassens, D. L. and Feist, W. C., 1991
    Factors affecting mould growth on kiln dried wood, by Viitanen, H., 2001
    spruce timber
    Fungal growth on wood surfaces at different moisture conditions in crawl spaces, by Pasanen, P.O. et al, 2001
    Guide to wood design information, 2001-2002 edition, by Wood Products Council, 2001
    Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from wood and wood-based materials, by Jensen, L. K., Larsen, A., Molhave, L., Hansen, M. and Knudsen, B., 2001
    heat and moisture transfer
    Heat and moisture transfer in wood-based wall construction: measured versus predicted, by Zarr, R. R., Burch, D. M. and Fanney, A. H., 1995
    Hygroscopic moisture transport in wood, by Time, B., 1998
    Immunological detection of wood decay fungi - an overview of techniques developed from 1986, by Clausen, C. A., 1997
    math model of sorption in wood
    Mathematical modelling of sorption processes in timber based on numerical analysis mathematical modelling, by Dai, G. and Ahmet, K., 1999
    measure, wood, permeability
    Measurement of unsaturated wood permeability by transient flow methods, by Spolek, C. A. and Piroozmandi, F., 1996
    Measurement of wood grain angle, moisture content and density using microwaves (Messung der Faserneigung, der Holzfeuchte und der Rohdichte mittels Mikrowellen), by Schajer, G. S. and Orhan, F., 2006
    Micromechanical modelling of wood and fibre properties, by Persson, K., 2000
    Mold, housing and wood, by Robbins, C. and Morrell, J., 2003
    Mould and blue stain on heat treated wood, by Ahola, P., J?ms?, S., Viitanen, H. and Viitaniemi, P., 2002
    Nanotechnology applications in the forest products industry, by Moon, R. J., Frihart, C. R. and Wegner, T., 2006
    NT Build 420, Building Materials, Wood: Moisture Content, by Nortdtest, 0
    Panel Report, Canada/Japan -- Tariff on imports of Spruce, Pine, Fir (SPF) dimension lumber, adopted 19 July 1989, by WTO, 1989
    Predicting decay rates in structures: the effects of wood moisture content on decay rate, by Morrell, J. J., 2000
    Proceedings of International Conference on Wood-Water Relations : Annual Conference of COST Action E, by Hoffmeyer, P. (Ed), 1997
    Profile 2005 : softwood sawmills in the United States and Canada , by Spelter, H. and Alderman, M., 2005
    Retarded sorption in wood. experimental study, analyses and modelling, by H?kansson, 1998
    review of wood panel sector 1999, US, Canada
    Review of wood-based panel sector in United States and Canada, by Spelter, H., McKeever, D., and Durbak, I., 1999
    Sap stain in hardwood logs and lumber, by Cassens, D. L., 1991
    environmental friendly
    Spectroscopic evaluation and inspection of environmentally friendly wood protection systems, by Jernberg, P., Eriksson, B., and Abrahamsson, J., 1996
    Steel vs. wood -- long-term thermal performance comparison, Valparaiso demonstration homes, by National Association of Home Builders, 2002
    2D transient heat transfer
    Structure based, two-dimensional, anisotropic, transient heat conduction model for wood, by Gu, H., 2001
    Technology roadmap: lumber and value-added wood products, by Industry Canada,, 2005
    The hygrothermal inertia of massive timber constructions, by Hameury, S., 2006
    The problem of the durability of materials used in the rehabilitation of historic timber roofs- rehabilitation of historic timber roofs, by Cestari, C. B. and S. Cravero And S. C. C. Lombardi, 1999
    THE SPAN BOOK : span tables for the Canadian dimension lumber and glued-laminated timber, by Canadian Wood Council, 2004
    Timber joint design: the geometric breakdown method , by Erman, E., 2003
    U.S. forest products annual market review and prospects, 2002--2006, by Howard, J. L., 2006
    U.S. timber production, trade consumption, and price statistics 1965 to 1999, by Howard, J. L., 2001
    Volatile metabolites from indoor molds grown on media containing wood constituents, by Wilkins, K., Larsen, K. and Simkus, M., 2003
    Wetting phenomena on wood- factors influencing measurements of wood wettability, by W?linder, M., 2000
    Wood and wood-based materials: current status and future, by Fridley, K. J. Ed, 2002
    long-term durability
    Wood durability issues on the long-term performance of wood in service, by Quarles, S. L. and Tully, D.F, 0
    wood handbook
    Wood handbook - wood as an engineering material, by Forest Products Laboratory, 1999
    Wood innovation in the residential construction sector; opportunities and constraints, by Goverse, T., M. P. H., Groenewegen, P., Worrell, E. and Smits, R. E. H. M., 2001
    Wood markets
    Wood markets 2000 edition: the solid wood products outlook 2002 to 2006, by International Wood Markets Research Inc, 2000
    Wood material behavior in severe environments, by Allen, C., 1999
    Wood products used in new nonresidential building construction, by McKeever, D. B. and Adair, C., 1995
    Wood used in new residential construction 1998 and 1995
    Wood used in new residential construction 1998 and 1995, by NAHB Research Center, 1999
    Wood-destroying fungi in residential construction, by Smulski, S., 1996

    CRDBER, at CBS, BCEE, ENCS, Concordia,