Conceptual Reference Database for Building Envelope Research Prev
Related Concept
  • rain
  • cladding, siding, veneer
  • wind driven rain
  • windows, doors, fenestration
  • WRB weather-resistive barrier, house wrap

  • Related Articles
  • Building Engineering Group (BEG)
  • driven rain simulation, steady-state simulation technique
  • Dynamic Wall Testing Facility at IRC /NRC
  • simulate by water injection: EDRA: Envelope Drying Rates Analysis Experiment
  • simulation of: Experimental programs on wetting-drying tests of building envelope
  • how to drain: Filled cavity- pro and con
  • problem and solution: insulation as exterior sheathing
  • Moisture from outdoor
  • Reference for wood finishing at FPL, USDA
  • Reference related to rain penetraton
  • w/ brick: RILEM tube: measurement of water absorption of masonry walls
  • Rainscreen to reduce: Siding Question, Rainscreen Question
  • rain into stucco cladding: Vancouver building problems, findings

  • Concept:

    rain penetration, water intrusion

    This is a quite open area in terms of the breadth of the research. Studies range from: natural rain, rain profiles, raindrop properties, raindrop traces, rain amount on walls, and other topics. For rain and driving rain see wind driven rain.

    International standards on water penetration

    BSMI (Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection) Method of test for water penetration performance of building curtain walls-by dynamic pressure

    CEN (European Committee for Standardization) : Industrial, Commercial and Garage Doors and Gates - Resistance to Water Penetration - Requirements and Classification

    CEN (European Committee for Standardization) : Flexible Sheets for Waterproofing - Underlays for Discontinuous Roofing and Walls - Determination of Resistance to Water Penetration

    BSMI (Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection) : Method of test for water penetration performance of building curtain walls-by static pressure

    as well as ASTMs. See Related references below.

    An article on basic approaches to water penetration control(This link was checked on Dec. 2006Online source at This link was checked on Dec.

    "There are four basic approaches to water penetration control in buildings:

    Mass: traditional, solid assemblies that shed most surface water, effectively absorb the remainder, and subsequently release absorbed moisture as a vapor. Examples include solid concrete, masonry, and timber structures. This approach has variable effectiveness in most climates.

    Barrier: surface designed to completely shed surface water with no moisture penetration. Examples include barrier-type exterior insulation finish systems (EIFS) and stucco or clapboard walls built without a drainage plane (e.g., house wrap, building paper). These are effective in climates with less than 30 inches of precipitation annually.

    Internal drainage plane: a drainage plane or moisture barrier located between the exterior cladding and the supporting wall that provides redundancy of moisture resistance. Examples include typical stucco and clapboard walls built with a drainage plane. These are effective in climates with an annual precipitation of less than 50 inches.

    Rain screen: a moisture-management system incorporating cladding, air cavity, drainage plane, and airtight support wall to offer multiple moisture-shedding pathways. Rain screens diminish the forces attempting to drive moisture into the wall. There are two types of rain screens: simple rain screens and pressure-equalized rain screens (PER). Examples include brick veneer cavity walls, furred-out clapboard walls, and drainable EIFS. Simple rain screens are effective in climates with an annual precipitation of less than 60 inches; PERs are effective in climates with an annual precipitation of 60 inches or more. "


    This link was checked on Dec. 2006Water testing tools in field

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006Intro to rain penetration tests

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006rain penetration test for masonry

    This link was checked on Dec. 2006Measure penetrated water

    Related References (41)
    A review of rain control and design strategies, by Straube, J. and Burnett, E.F.P, 1999
    test rain penitration on rainscreen
    A study of the rainscreen concept applied to cladding systems on wood frame walls, by Morrison Hershfield Limited, 1990
    Adapting rain data for hygrothermal models, by Cornick, C., Dalgliesh, S. D. and Alan, W., 2009
    mention computer simulation of rain trajectory and penetration
    Applied moisture engineering, by Karagiozis, A. N., 1998
    Approach for the simulation of wetting due to rain infiltration for building envelope testing, by St-Hilaire, A., Derome, D. and Fazio, P., 2003
    Capacity of rendering systems to resist rain penetration, by Kvande, T., Time, B. and Waldum, A. M., 2002
    Control of rain penetration through pressurized cavity walls, by Kontopidis, T., 1992
    at window joints
    Creating durable bonds between windows and walls, by Rousseau, M. J. (Ed.), 1999
    Criteria for water penetration testing, by Choi, E. C. C., 1998
    Details that keep walls watertight, by Fisette, P., 1997
    E2128-01a Standard Guide for Evaluating Water Leakage of Building Walls, by ASTM, 2001
    E241-04 Standard Guide for Limiting Water-Induced Damage to Buildings, by ASTM, 2004
    E331-00 Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference, by ASTM, 2000
    testing, fenetration, static pressure
    E331-00, Standard test method for water penetration of exterior windows, curtain walls, and doors by uniform static air pressure difference, by ASTM, 2000
    E547-00: water penetration of exterior windows, curtain walls, and doors by cyclic static air pressure differential, by ASTM, 2000
    Effect of capillarity on rainwater penetration in the building envelope, by Mao, Q., Rao, J. and Fazio, P., 2004
    EIFS to rain water
    EIFS Resistance to Water Penetration and Evaluation in Accordance with EIMA Method, by Remmele, T. E., 1996
    Evolution of curtain wall design against water infiltration, by Ting, R., 1997
    Evolution of wall design for controlling rain penetration, by Chown, G. A., Brown, W. C. and Poirier, G. F., 1997
    rain water into hard wood siding causing decay
    Field observations and laboratory tests of water migration in walls with shiplap hardboard siding, by Tsongas, G. A., Govan, D. P. and J. A. McGillis, 1998
    full scale test, brick veneer, steel stud wall
    Full scale tests of brick veneer steel stud walls - strength and rain penetration, by Drysdale, R. G. and Michael J., 1997
    Leakage at interface between multiple fa?ade components, by Zwayer, G. L. C. and Crowe, J. P., 1998
    Leaking brick-clad walls: causes, prevention, and repair, by Beasley, K.J, 1990
    Moisture performance of leaky exterior walls with added insulation, by Desmarais, G., D. Derome and P. Fazio, 2001
    exterior wall, field
    On-site exterior wall monitoring methods for air leakage, condensation and rain penetration control problems, by Quirouette, R., 1999
    Potential of rain screen walls to prevent rain penetration: pressurized cavity principle, by Kontopidis, T., Reddy, M. S. and Fazio, P., 1993
    Proposed method for calculating water penetration test parameters of wall assemblies as applied to Istanbul, Turkey, by Sahal, N. and Lacasse, M. A., 2008
    rain damage
    Rain penetration and moisture damage in residential construction, by Rousseau, J., 1983
    Rain penetration control - applying current knowledge (rpc-00), by Lawton, M., Meklin, T., 1999
    Rainwater intrusion in light-frame building walls, by Carll, C., 2000
    rainfall distribution on facades
    Reacting to durability problems with Vancouver buildings, by Lawton, M. D., 1999
    Report from task 6 of MEWS project -- experimental assessment of water penetration and entry into wood-frame wall specimens, - final report, by Lacasse, M. A., O'connor, T. J., Nunes, S. and Beaulieu., P., 2003
    simulating wind driving rain
    Simulation of wind-driven-rain around a building, by Choi, E. C. C., 1992
    Spatial and temporal characteristics of heavy precipitation events over Canada , by Zhang, X., Hogg, W.D. and Mekis, E., 2001
    Commissioning Protocol
    The rainscreen wall: a commissioning protocol, by Quirouette, R.L., 1996
    heat and moisture transfer under rain
    Transient heat and moisture transfer through building envelope under rain precipitation, by Matsumoto, M., 1995
    Water intrusion evaluation for caulkless siding, window, and door systems-laboratory testing results, by NAHB Research Center, Inc., 2002
    Water leakage through building facades, by Kudder, R.J. and Erdly, J. L. (Eds.), 1998
    Water penetration through exterior walls, by Gurevich, M. S., 2005
    at windows
    Window systems: repair versus replacement, by Kelley, S. J., Chiropolos, J. N. and Gustitus, D. A., 1993
    Z8311Z-200x, test method for water penetration of exterior windows, skylights, and doors by rapid pulsed air pressure difference, by BSR/ASTM, 2000

    CRDBER, at CBS, BCEE, ENCS, Concordia,